LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN Nomenclature D dead loads kips or kips/ft E earthquake load kips or kips/ft H load due to lateral pressure kips/ft2 L live loads due to occupancy kips or kips/ft Lr roof live load kips or kips/ft Q load eﬀect produced by service load kips R load due to rainwater or ice kips or kips/ft Rn nominal strength S snow load kips or kips/ft U required strength to resist factored loads W wind load kips or kips/ft Symbols load factor resistance factor 

roof live load, wLr = 0.4 kip/ft ﬂoor dead load, including cladding and columns, wD = 1.6 kips/ft ﬂoor live load, wL = 1.25 kips/ft horizontal wind pressure, ph = 1.0 kip/ft vertical wind pressure, pv = 0.5 kip/ft Determining the maximum/minimum design loads on columns.
The axial load on one column attributed to dead load is


The axial load on one column attributed to roof live load is The axial load on one column attributed to ﬂoor live load is The axial load on one column from horizontal wind pressure is The axial load on one column from vertical wind pressure is

From IBC Eq. (162), the maximum design load on a column is Alternatively, from IBC Eq. (164), From IBC Eq. (166), the minimum design load on a column is 
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